The Effects Of Salt On Bread: Technological Considerations For Reduced Salt Levels
Salt is a dietary mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride. These two components of salt are essential nutrient for humans with important functions in regulating extracellular fluid volume and the active transport of molecules across cell membranes. However, having too much salt in the diet increases the risk of health problems. High sodium intake is positively correlated with the level of blood pressure. Therefore, it is necessary to consume food with reduced salt content. Salt has been used as a food preservative that kills or limits of foodborne pathogens and spoilage organism by decreasing water activity. Salt also has functions in foods by adding flavor and masking bitter tastes, controlling growth of yeast and strengthening the dough network and gas retention of the dough. Reducing salt content in processed food especially for bread based products is one of the greatest ongoing challenges facing food manufactures. It also has been difficult to reduce or remove salt or sodium chloride from bread since salt is one of the four essential ingredients in bread. Reducing salt level from 1.2% does not significantly affect dough rheological properties and bread-making quality. However, omission of salt entirely leads to significant reduction in dough, bread quality and its palatability.